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On-line Course Reflection

iStock_computer-art.151110
Retrieved from: https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/adding-game-elements-to-your-online-course/

Course 5318 of Lamar University’s Digital Learning and Leading program provided me with an opportunity to create an online course. This course augmented the innovation plan I devised early in the program. My innovation plan involves leveraging new technology tools and software to create virtual work-place environments and 360-degree tours for students in Career and Technical Education courses.

In designing this course, I relied on the Constructivist learning theory, which is to say learners construct meaning from their experiences. The activities built into my course required the learner to perform tasks and then reflect on what they had done. I tried to inject an element of social accountability through discussion boards and gave learners leeway with regard to the subject of their virtual tours.

I have thought about and designed lessons—primarily for professional development—with a UbD mindset for so long now, it is second nature to me to begin with the end in mind. From the first unit of this course, I laid out what the end goal is: create a library of virtual worksite tours. The lessons that follow are designed backward to take the learner to that eventual outcome.

It is clear that online learning will only grow exponentially. The freedom it offers in terms of scheduling make it a much more flexible format for delivering instruction. As teachers at heart, we wonder will the lack of face-to-face interaction with learners detract substantially from the course? After taking this course, and building my own online course, I can honestly say that with the technology available to conduct courses on line, little is lost by not being in an in-person environment. From web-conferencing software to conduct synchronous meetings with learners, to web 2.0 tools learners can use to demonstrate their learning, I am astounded by the benefits to online learning. The Bates text and the OSCQR standards have been invaluable resources.

Seeing all the criteria for a well-developed course laid out in one document causes one to realize just how much goes into creating an on-line course. Having conducted this self-assessment, it is clear how lacking my course is. I think I’ve done a decent job introducing my course and its purpose. I also provided a variety of activities for learners to demonstrate their learning. I really need to go back an beef up elements of accessibility and feedback.

Bates, T. (2015) Teaching in a Digital Age: Guidelines for Designing Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/

Standards for Professional Learning. (2015) Retrieved from https://learningforward.org/standards/learning-designs#.VzHxq2MWVlI

Online Course Development

online-learning-3
Retrieved from: https://www.teachingonline.net/teaching-for-online-learning/

My most recent course in the Digital Learning and Leading program that my cohort is rapidly moving through has us developing online courses in a Learning Management System. The online course that I am developing coincides with my Innovation Plan, which involves using new technology to create virtual work site tours for Career and Technical Education students. In the course, I take the learner through the process of creating a virtual tour Please take a look at my Schoology online course. You can register as a student and take the course here. When prompted, use access code: 3736-V4ZX-6F46Q. I’d love to receive your feedback in the comments.

Online Course Transformations

I work in the Career and Technical Education department in the district office. Our department creates many professional development sessions for CTE instructors. Two PD courses that stand out to me as having great potential of being effective in an online setting are CTE 101 and CTSOs and Work-based Learning.

These professional development CTE courses have several objectives:

  • Getting teachers to understand the importance of career exploration before students are thrust into the world without having given any focused thought to the matter. “Careers by Choice, not Chance,” as a colleague of mine likes to call it.
  • Reviewing instructional best practices—particularly important for new teachers who have great industry experience but often little to no classroom experience
  • Safety and Classroom Management
  • Earning Industry-Based Certifications.
  • Compliance Issues—Because CTE is a federally funded program, there are compliance issues all teachers and administrators need to be aware of, i.e. seat time requirements, and teacher certification.
  • What is a recognized Career and Technical Student Organization, and how does one sponsor a chapter on a campus?
  • Work-Based Learning (WBL) has the potential to transform students’ lives by allowing them to see, first-hand, what work in a particular industry involves. There are many rules and regulations that govern WBL.

Learning around all these issues and others are well suited to be delivered in an online format.

 

 

Action Research

eye_searchAction Research is a methodical process that requires planning, acting, developing and reflecting. When done thoughtfully and with attention to detail, it greatly increases the likelihood of successfully implementing an innovation plan. My Innovation Proposal seeks to employ new, affordable technology to create virtual job site experiences in the Career and Technical Education classroom, but how do I know that this is a plan worth pursuing? I had to research, more specifically, I had to do action research. Action research forces the practitioner to be clear about his/her focus, the purpose of the research, and the specific research question one is trying to answer. It mandates that thought be given to research design, the data to be collected, the measurement instrument used to assess the data, and what the focus of the literature one seeks out should be. You can review the process I engaged in to plan the implementation of my innovation proposal and how I intend to examine my results by viewing the following three documents:

Action Research Outline
Literature Review
Action Research Plan

Innovation Plan Revisited

reflection

The assigned readings from this course, 5314, Digital Learning in Local and Global Contexts, which examined technology integration initiatives, combined with my own research of virtual reality in the classroom, have led me to conclude that, in some instances, I was on the right track with my Innovation Plan, but I must do some retooling  in certain areas if I want it to be successful. Having studied the experiences of others will undoubtedly aid me in the implementation of my plan.

I think I have always been clear about my why—preparing students for high-skill, high-wage and high-demand occupations within the career and technical education programs throughout my district. I learned by reading many of the case studies that being cognizant and in sync with one’s mission is critical if one’s plan is to be a success.

I also feel as though I have a clear vision of what successful implementation looks like in my district: Specific career clusters will create and be able to use the virtual environments that they and their colleagues create. The result will be an online repository of these virtual environments that students across the district will be able to access.

My innovation plan needs to be reworked to provide more guidance on the technical aspects of creating these virtual environment experiences. For example, my innovation plan does not adequately explain or provide opportunities for end users to understand the interface and navigational designs of a virtual environment. Furthermore, my research has informed me that technical quality in such aspects as image clarity, pan, zoom, and the stitching of multiple images are enormously important to creating a believable environment (Ausburn 2019).

When embarking on an innovation plan, it is not enough to justify it by stating that it incorporates cutting-edge technology. Rather, it is critical that the justification for such a plan be backed up by research and best practices. The case studies presented in this course provided the insight into the types of questions I should be asking and the pitfalls to avoid during my implementation.

Presentation

Literature Review

Innovation Plan

Call to Action

Please click on the picture below to view the video of my Call to Action. This call to action is in reference to my innovation plan and is mindful of the lessons learned in the readings and research I have done for the Digital Learning in Local and Global Contexts course I am currently taking.

picture
Call to Action 

Learning Networks

Networking
Retrieved from http://genomicenterprise.com/

Professional Learning Networks are invaluable forums for learning and leading in fields of study. Aided by technology, these networks can be among peers within a building or educators with similar interests throughout the world.

I would characterize my involvement in online professional learning networks heretofore as being much more of a consumer than producer. My experience has been to absorb and benefit from the insight and expertise of the contributors of the PLNs I follow.

Here you will find an annotated list of the PLNs most helpful to me and my learning:

TCEA
Texas Computer Education Association) is a global, nonprofit, member-based organization. We support the use of technology in education. Founded in 1980, TCEA has been playing a vital role in increasing technology funding and access for PreK-16 schools for 38 years. Our 13,000-member association is led by a grassroots board of directors—all professional educators. TCEA’s resources support educators in the field who are enhancing curriculum with digital tools. The Technology Coordinators Special Interest Group (TEC-SIG) is a fantastic forum for sharing information.

ISTE
From its website, https://www.iste.org/standards: ISTE is  home to a passionate community of global educators who believe in the power of technology to transform teaching and learning, accelerate innovation and solve tough problems in education. ISTE inspires the creation of solutions and connections that improve opportunities for all learners by delivering: practical guidance, evidence-based professional learning, virtual networks, thought-provoking events and the ISTE Standards.

Twitter
I manage two accounts: one personal–@dwthurman–which I very rarely post to, and Houston ISD’s Career Readiness feed–@HoustonCCR. The Career Readiness feed is mostly used to hi-light events and accomplishments of the campus CTE programs around the district. Through my membership in TCEA, I found and have been keen to follow two individuals from the Ed Tech community: Kathy Schrock @KathySchrock and Miguel Guhlin @mguhlin.

Facebook
Through my involvement in the Digital Learning and Leading masters program at Lamar University, I am a member of the Digital Learning and Leading Facebook group. From the About page: Digital Learning and Leading (DLL) Facebook Group is the place were students in the Lamar University Masters of Digital Learning and Leading program can connect and collaborate as they work toward using technology to enhance learning. The DLL Facebook Group is also the place where students and graduates of the DLL program can work together to help create significant learning environments (CSLE) that give learners choice, ownership and voice through authentic (COVA) learning opportunities.

MS Teams
MS Teams is included in my district’s Office 365 adoption. It is an excellent tool for collaborating. You can have conversations in a FB-type format, you can exchange links and files, and you can conduct a video broadcast of a training. The system allows you to tag people so that relevant info in a large team finds the appropriate person. My department is using MS Teams as a tool for organizing and disseminating content specific to the different career clusters at our beginning-of-the-year professional development. My hope is that teachers who teach the same course but who are on different campuses can use this tool to collaborate throughout the year. If anyone in the DLL program has access to this MS Teams and would like an introduction to using it, you can link to my getting started guide here.

Book Study
Within Career and Technical Education department I work in, we take part in book studies to improve our practice. A book we read recently was The Smartest Kids In The World by Amanda Ripley.

Professional Learning: A Call to Action

The video presentation of my Professional Learning Call to Action can be found by clicking on the image below:

Boring presentation
Image retrieved from: http://www.mrmediatraining.com/2014/07/30/how-to-never-attend-a-boring-presentation-again/

 

When sitting down to create my Call to Action Professional Learning video presentation https://youtu.be/6Hk3aJ04R0k, I wanted to accomplish four main objectives:

  • Acknowledge the lack-luster impact professional development often has on its audience.
  • Present the vision for this professional learning series. This vision includes the WHY of its importance.
  • Briefly touch on the five principles of effective professional development.
  • Finally, I sought to re-justify the vision, restate the Why, and call my colleagues to action.

I began with hyperbolic reactions educators exhibit at the prospect of enduring a professional development session. I inserted a still of audience members sleeping as an attempt at humor to add some levity to the tone of the presentation.

Next, I tried to relate to my audience of CTE teachers and instructional technologists. I wanted to get them thinking about the power of their own good ideas to better education, and to see the futility of these ideas if they go unexpressed or acted on.

I then turned to the professional learning at hand and explained the necessity for it. I tried to appeal to their Why in the sense of identifying logistical issues we can all relate to, but, all the while, insisting that we overcome those obstacles for the sake of our students’ education. I also took this opportunity to include my navigating within 360-degree photographs of actual CTE relevant job sites, so they would have an idea of the end product this PD will produce.

Finally, I reiterated the challenge before us and why executing this professional learning series will benefit our students—retouching on the Why and following the ebb and flow model articulated by Duarte. I end the presentation with a final summarizing thought about effective professional learning.

References used in the creation of my video presentation and this explanation:

Gulamhussein, A. (2013). Teaching the teachers effective professional development in an era of high stakes accountability. Center for Public Education. Retrieved from http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/system/files/Professional%20Development.pdf

Daniels, K. (2013). Empowering the teacher technophobe. [Video]. TEDxBurnsvilleED. Retrieved from YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=641&v=puiNcIFJTCU

Duarte, N. (2010, December 10). Nancy Duarte uncovers common structure of the greatest communicators 11/11/2010 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/1nYFpuc2Umk

Sinek, S. (2015, May 5). How to begin your presentation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/e80BbX05D7Y  

Leading Organization Change: A Summary

If I want to enact change within my organization, How do I know that the change I am envisioning is appropriate and meaningful, and furthermore, how do I go about implementing the change I seek? 5304, a course in my masters program, contextualizes and offers up practical tools for leading change in an organization.

Change is inevitable, but it is resisted within organizations because it is unpredictable and uncomfortable. I have been tasked with implementing an Innovation Plan that will have a significant and long-lasting impact upon my district’s Career and Technical Education department. In order to bring about the change I envision, I will employ the strategies I have gleaned over the last five weeks.

Why?

change

“Why do I do what I do?” What is my purpose? These questions set the context for launching a change initiative. If, when we seek to bring about change, we start with the question of why we exist–what our big mission is –we focus on the reason for our actions. According to Simon Sinek, people are less concerned with what an organization does as why they do it. As I bring about change to my organization by implementing my Innovation Plan, I need to be clear about why we do what we do–to give students post-secondary educational and workforce opportunities upon graduation from high school. Read more about my Why Statement.


Influencer Strategy

influenceWe know that quick fixes (such as training alone) rarely if ever bring about real change. Therefore, I will be using the Influencer Model to address motivation and ability on a personal, social and structural level, with the expectation that addressing each of these sources of influence will make my change efforts successful. This strategy requires change agents to consider vital behaviors and organizational influencers when considering how change might best be implemented. The Sources of Influence Matrix is an optimal tool for organizing this change initiative.


4DX

While the Influencer Strategy does a phenomenal job at managing the behavior of change, The Four Disciplines of Execution (4DX) focuses on the system of change. 4DX is a system for managing and mitigating surprises and obstacles that arise with any significant change initiative. We have utilized the 4DX tool, created by Chris McChesmen, Sean Covey and Jim Huling, as a road map for launching and sustaining the goals of my district’s Career Readiness department. 4DX helps us to understand we are trying to bring about change and implement new initiatives despite being battered by the whirlwind on a daily basis. For this reason, we strategically set our Wildly Important Goals and check our progress regularly.


Crucial Conversations

conversationsCrucial Conversations are the nucleic acids of change. They are the granular building blocks that make change possible by clearing the air and making sure the environment is ripe for change and growth within an organization. In their book, Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High, authors Patterson, Grenny, and Swizler define a crucial conversation as one in which the stakes are high, there are strong emotions, and there are differing opinions. It is the job of the self-differentiated leader to recognize when these conversations are needed and to execute them following the precepts outlined by Patterson, Grenny and Swizler.

References:

Patterson, K., & Grenny, J. (2013). Influencer: The new science of leading change, Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 0071808868

Patterson, K., Grenny, J., & Swizler, A. (2012). Crucial conversations: tools for talking when stakes are high. (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill New York, NY.  ISBN-10: 0071771328

Friedman, E. H. (2007). A Failure of Nerve: Leadership in the age of the quick fix. Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN B009VHSBYK

Covey, S., McChesney, C., & Huling, J. (2012). The 4 Disciplines of Execution: Achieving your wildly important goals. Simon and Schuster. ISBN B005FLODJ8

Crucial Conversations

There are some conversations you would like to avoid. In the moment, it is easier to defer it or avoid having it, but in the long run, not having these conversations will prevent you from achieving your goals. Be these conversations personal, such as family finances or differences in child rearing; or professional, such as department goals or job performance, there are conversations that should be dubbed crucial. In their book, Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High, authors Patterson, Grenny, and Swizler define a crucial conversation as one in which the stakes are high, there are strong emotions, and there are differing opinions. It is the job of the self-differentiated leader to recognize when these conversations are needed and to execute them following the precepts outlined by Patterson, Grenny and Swizler.

Get Unstuck

unstuckFor my innovation plan to launch successfully, I need to, first, identify where I am stuck and unbundle the problem with CPR (the content, pattern, relationship analysis). It is clear to me where I am stuck: I and members of my team live in the whirlwind. The prospect of starting a major initiative in the midst of the daily duties is daunting. I would characterize this problem as one that falls into the Content domain. It is essential that I and the people I will be working with–CTE instructors, and Campus Instructional Technologists are supportive of this endeavor.

Start With The Heart

heartNext, I need to engage in self reflection and honestly assess whether my actions are indicative of what I really want. I need to be perfectly clear of what I want for myself, for others and for the relationship. This stage of the crucial conversation is about managing my own emotions and focusing on how my message is being delivered as much, if not more, than the content of my message. The key to successfully delivering the message I am trying to impart is to be open, honest and respectful to my colleague with whom I am conversing.

Learn to Look

lookWouldn’t it be nice if when we were engaged in a conversation that was turning crucial we could hit the pause button like on a Tivo remote and get our ducks in a row before proceeding with the conversation. Unfortunately, conversations are organic that can ebb and flow due to a number of factors. Practicing learning to look for moments and cues that can turn the conversation into a negative experience rather than a positive one is extremely important. It’s tough to do on the fly, but three things to be on the lookout for are:

  • The moment the conversation is turning crucial
  • Signs the your conversation partner isn’t feeling safe. They are exhibiting silence and or violence behaviors, which means their fight or flight reptilian brain is taking over and reducing the likelihood of meaningful conversation
  • My own style or behaviors under stress. When I feel my top lip starting to curl in anger involuntarily or my hands start gesticulating more wildly, that’s a sure sign I need to pull back and refocus.

Make it Safe

Being guided by your emotions during a crucial conversation is a recipe for disaster. When emotions dictate the conversation, we are more apt to say hurtful things or disengage, leaving the problem to fester. Sometimes it’s helpful to clarify what you do not want. For example,  “I don’t want confusion or ambiguity to persist around this issue.” Another strategy for keeping the conversation safe is to share something you respect about the person. This tactic can defuse hostility. Finally, it is appropriate to apologize when one has said something disrespectful. Some say apologizing is a sign of weakness. That is inaccurate. If an apologize is warranted, give it.

Master My Stories

storiesThe key is to master my stories, not let them master me. We compose narratives for ourselves to make sense of the issue we are trying to resolve. When a CTE instructor was angry with me for not receiving the equipment she had been promised and was expecting, I created an elaborate victim story absolving myself of any responsibility and placing the blame on the shoulders of everyone from the procurement department to the vendor, even to our legal department for not having executed the MOU in a timely fashion. The more productive strategy is to turn my victim/villain/helpless stories int a useful story that will lead to productive dialogue.

State My Path

path-into-the-hillsWhen striving to articulate your rationale for the path forward, consider how open you are being to others’ views. Are you talking about the real issue facing your organization? Are you expressing your views confidently and effectively? it is helpful to keep the acronym STATE in mind:

  • Share your facts.
  • Tell your story.
  • Ask for others’ paths.
  • Talk tentatively.
  • Encourage testing.

Explore Others’ Paths

Sometimes we should try to “walk a mile in their shoes.” Presumably if the person you are having a crucial conversation with is a family member, friend, colleague, or you have some other kind of meaningful relationship with him or her, we should be able to consider that person reasonable, rational and decent. Keeping this in mind will go a long way in defusing highly charged conversations. I can, on occasion, become flabbergasted by a friend’s political stance. Regardless of how misguided I believe their positions to be, when I stop to remember how much more we have in common than we disagree about, just acknowledging that mid-conversation does wonders to keep the talk civil and increases the likelihood of arriving at some kind of mutual understanding.

Move to Action

action-clapboardAt the end of the day, it is about more than the conversations. Getting in touch with your emotions and triggers is extremely beneficial. Understanding how others are approaching an issue is helpful. But the goal in having the crucial conversations is to move to action. The crucial conversation is a means to an end. That end is executing the mutually accepted plan you have formulated to accomplish your Wildly Important Goal. How do we ensure we are progressing from talk to action? We are checking in regularly with our 4DX scoreboard.

References:

Patterson, K., Grenny, J., & Swizler, A. (2012). Crucial conversations: tools for talking when stakes are high. (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill New York, NY.  ISBN-10: 0071771328

Covey, S., McChesney, C., & Huling, J. (2012). The 4 Disciplines of Execution: Achieving your wildly important goals. Simon and Schuster. ISBN B005FLODJ8

Four Disciplines of Execution

execution
Retrieved from Strategist.IO https://twitter.com/strategistio/status/662027109632745472

As a way to create more opportunities for students to learn about what they are likely to encounter on job sites upon entering the workforce, the Career Readiness department has created a Wildly Important Goal (WIG) of establishing a collection of virtual job sites students and teachers across the district can access electronically by January 2020. You can learn more about this goal by reading my Innovation Proposal. Creating this library of virtual simulations is a goal we are striving to achieve amidst the whirlwind of our daily duties. We will employ the Four Disciplines of Execution model to provide clarity to our priorities as we strive to reach this goal.

4DX

The Four Disciplines of Execution–4DX–is a system for managing and mitigating surprises and obstacles that arise with any significant change initiative. We have utilized the 4DX tool, created by Chris McChesmen, Sean Covey and Jim Huling, as a roadmap for launching and sustaining the goals of my district’s Career Readiness department.

4dx pictochart

Stages of Change

What follows are the authors’ observations of the stages groups within organizations pass through when undergoing a major change effort.

Stage 1–Getting Clear

No, not like the Scientologists in Hollywood. This stage demands that everyone on the team trying to execute the WIG be perfectly clear about what the the Four Disciplines of Execution look like as it pertains to the team’s goal.

The WIG (Discipline 1) is the Wildly Important Goal. It is a goal that will make all the difference between the organization’s success or failure. Because of the law of diminishing returns, it is crucial that teams only identify and work to achieve 1 to 2 WIGs at a time.

When working toward a Wildly Important Goal, the team will have a lag measure that will reflect the status of achieving the WIG. Team members must have the discipline and restraint to Act on Lead Measures (Discipline 2) so that they do not get bogged down in the enormity of the overarching goal. These lead measures influence and are predictive of the WIG’s success.

We know that engagement changes behavior. When team members can see that they are moving the proverbial ball (in this game metaphor), they report more happiness and job satisfaction. A way to promote engagement is to Create a Compelling Scoreboard (Discipline 3). This scoreboard should be easy to access and interpret, show both lead and lag measures, and tell us if we are winning or losing at the “game.” This scoreboard shows at a glance how many virtual simulations have been created at each CTE campus:

scoreboard

Finally, we will Create a Cadence of Accountability (Discipline 4) in pursuit of our WIG. When we each have others who are aware of and dependent on our individual work efforts, it ramps up accountability, and in turn, that accountability increases the likelihood of successful goal completion. We will foster accountability by holding regularly-scheduled meetings in which we report on commitments, review the scoreboard and make new commitments.

Stage 2–Launch

The operative word within this stage is focus. The team must be focused ignoring (or de-emphasizing) the whirlwind while full attention is given to the lead measures that will ultimately shepherd the team to successful goal attainment. As we work toward the goal of establishing a collection of virtual job sites, we must trust the process of chipping away at the identified lead measures and resist the temptation to focus only on the lag measure. These lead measures include:

  • Conducting collaborative meetings among CTE instructors and Campus Instructional Technologists on the topic of creating work site simulations
  • Make business contacts and identify procedures for filming on location.

Focused baby steps.

Stage 3–Adoption

The new method for bringing about significant change is beginning to take root. During this Adoption stage, team members are either embracing or resisting the new disciplines. It is up to the leader to keep the ship sailing in the right direction encouraging the models, by giving potentials added support and addressing issues with resisters. It is at this stage I expect to observe which CTE instructors and Campus Instructional Technologists are meeting to overcome the logistical and technical challenges this WIG presents. We are checking that scoreboard regularly.

Stage 4–Optimization

Now we’re cooking with gas. We are acknowledging and celebrating the minor successes we are experiencing, which are leading us to our WIG. Team members are accountable to the team as a whole, which is driving more success. And, as an added benefit, creating more enthusiasm and satisfaction with the work of the department as a whole.

Stage 5–Habits

At this stage, team members have internalized the 4DX process. It is no longer a method they must struggle with to accomplish a goal; it has become ingrained, a working habit. In order to maintain this high level functioning, we will celebrate having achieved the WIG, and move quickly on to the next Wildly Important Goal. We emphasize that devotion to high performance on the lead measures is what got us to this point.

4DX and the Influencer Model

If you are going to hang a shelf, you need a couple different tools to complete the task. You will probably want to have a level on hand to ensure your shelf is, well, level, lest all your bric-a-brac slide off. You’ll also want a screw driver to drive in the screws of your shelf’s support brackets.

Similarly, when trying to implement significant change within your organization, it’s good to have a couple different tools in your tool box to address different aspects of change. One of the tools needed would assist with managing the behavior of change in your organization for you goals to be successful. This tool, the Influencer Model, addresses motivation and ability at the personal, social and structural levels. A second tool is one that helps to manage the system of change. It looks at four disciplines of executing change effectively, and the five stages the people attempting to bring about the change are likely to encounter.

One model is not better than the other, rather, they are both extremely useful in addressing the different aspects of the change process. Therefore, in order to implement change successfully in an organization, both models should be used in tandem.

References:

Chesney, C., Covey, S. & Huling, J.  (2012)  The 4 disciplines of execution.  New York, NY:  Franklin Covey Co.

Grenny, J., Patterson, K., Maxsfield, D., McMillan, R. & Switzler, A.  (2013).  Influencer:  The new science of leading change(2nd ed.).   Provo, UT:  VitalSmarts, LLC.